The Occurrence of the Terms "akademická etika and akademická integrita" in Texts on the Internet and in the Media/ eng
What is wrong is wrong, even if everyone is doing it. Right is still right, even if no one else is doing it.
The issue of plagiarism in higher education came to the fore in 2006 and 2008 (Slovak Rectors' Conference), 2009 (amendment to the Higher Education Act), and it resulted in 2010 characterized by the start of operation of the Central Repository (CR) of Theses and Dissertations (bachelor's, master's, dissertations, rigorous and habilitation theses) together with Plagiarism Detection System (Originality Check System, Anti-Plagiarism System, APS). This is a significant milestone in the fight against plagiarism at higher education institutions (HEIs). In the paper CRZP/APS: míľniky, aktuálny stav, pripravované zmeny (Kravjar, 2013) was investigated frequency of texts on the Internet and in the media containing the word plagiarism and also all its forms in the years 2002-2012. Year 2010 was the year of maximum occurrence of the word plagiarism and their annual increases in relation to the previous years.
Academic ethics defines standards, rules and principles of behaviour and actions in the academic community. One of the principles in academic ethics is academic integrity, meaning honesty, fairness, conscientiousness and responsibility. Integrity is associated mainly with the ethical problem of plagiarism when an individual does not act in line with the integrity principle, violates it and such actions are considered wrong (dishonest). Plagiarism is a serious breach of academic ethics and integrity (Platková-Olejárová, 2013).
I looked for an answer to the question whether the occurrence of terms akademická etika (academic ethics - all forms) and akademická integrita (academic integrity - all forms) on the Internet and in the media in Slovakia in the 2002-2012 period corresponds with the occurrence of the term plagiátorstvo (plagiarism - all forms).
Frequency of texts containing the term akademická etika on the Internet was investigated using the Google search engine for the period 2002-2012.Google advanced search was used with the following parameters:
• Search in Slovak language;
• Search in Slovakia;
• Search only in the text of pages (not in the page title, not in the URL address, not in the links to the page);
• Safe search off;
• Last update at any time;
• Any format;
• Rights to use unﬁltered by license;
• Unspeciﬁed site or domain.
Google search provides either " X results " or " About X results " . In both cases it was always checked whether on the last page of search results after the last result is present the announcement: "In order to show you the most relevant results, we have omitted some entries very similar to the Z already displayed. If you like, you can repeat the search with the omitted results included. " If there is such announcement occurred , search was repeated . This procedure was repeated until the above mentioned anouncement was not present on the last page of search results after the last result. The same procedure was used in the case of the term academic integrity.
Based on the obtained results for the term akademická etika for the 2002-2006 period, we can characterise this period as a period of almost zero occurrence of the phrase on the Internet with the given search parameters. The number of texts on the Internet with the occurrence of the term started to grow in 2007 (Graph 1).
A detailed analysis of the search results revealed that the School of Management in Trenčín (Vysoká škola manažmentu v Trenčíne, further VŠM) has a significant share in the search results. In the years with non-zero, but very low occurrence of the term akademická etika, i. e. 2003-2006, the results related to VŠM represented two thirds of all occurrences. In the 2007-2012 period, the results related to VŠM represented 54% of all occurrences for the period (Graph 2). VŠM was the first HEI in Slovakia to use the anti-plagiarism system (from 2001). The occurrences from VŠM’s texts for the 2003-2012 period (years with non-zero occurrence of texts) represented 54,4%.
I assumed that the frequency of texts containing the term akademická etika including all its forms for the 2002-2010 period will peak in 2010. This assumption was confirmed for Internet and the media (Graph 3 and 4). The frequency of this term on Internet is many times lower than the frequency of the term plagiátorstvo (Graph 3), it amounts to 15.6% on average.
Graph 3: Internet - plagiátorstvo vs akademická etika
And what did media monitoring show? A radically different situation. The occurrence of texts about akademická etika is minimal – 7 occurrences (maximum) were recorded in 2010. On average, it amounts to 8.5% compared to the occurrence of the term plagiátorstvo for the 2002-2012 period (Graph 4). The occurrence of the term akademická etika compared to the occurrence of the term plagiátorstvo is more than 6 times lower on Internet and almost 12 times lower in the media.
Graph 4: Media - plagiátorstvo vs akademická etika
Analogically, I assumed that the frequency of texts containing the term akademická integrita including all its forms for the 2002-2010 period will peak in 2010. However, the frequency of this term on Internet was very low – a total of 12 occurrences with the maximum of 7 in 2011. Given the low number of occurrences, it is makes no sense to compare the occurence of the term akademická integrita with the occurrence of plagiátorstvo. Media monitoring recorded no occurrence of the term akademická integrita, which is something I did not assume at all.
The preparation phase for the implementation and CR and APS and their deployment in live production in 2010 was accompanied by an increased incidence of texts dealing with plagiarism on the Internet and in the media in Slovakia (Graphs 3 and 4) . From the perspective of years 2002-2010 the incidence of texts culminated in the year 2010 (Kravjar, 2013).
Plagiarism is a violation of academic ethics and academic integrity. I assumed that the occurrence of these terms in the texts on the Internet and in the media in Slovakia will follow analogous trends as at the word plagiátorstvo. In the case of akademická etika and Internet trend is indeed analogous (Graph 3) , but significantly lower. As regards to the media there is the appearance of texts dealing with akademická etika very low (Graph 4): 26 total occurrences with peak value 7 in 2010. In the case of akademická integrita the appearance of the term was even lower than in the case of academic ethics . On the internet there has been found 12 texts with a maximum of 5 in 2011. In the media there was no one incidence of the term akademická integrita.
It is necessary to consider that the occurrence of the terms “academic ethics” and “academic integrity” was searched in this forms and its variants. It cannot be ruled out that there are texts with these terms, but not as the exact terms mentioned above.
Table 1: Comparison of Results 2002-2012
The table documents the occurrence of texts about academic ethics and academic integrity and shows that these terms are infrequent in the society and it is likely that knowledge of these terms and their meaning in the society is low. It is a negative, alarming situation that requires action. Why? Because full understanding and respecting of academic ethics and academic integrity can significantly contribute to the prevention of plagiarism.
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KRAVJAR, Július (2013) CRZP/APS: míľniky, aktuálny stav, pripravované zmeny. Symposium paper - 37th Symposium INFOS 2013, pp. 104-115. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.infolib.sk/files/Novy_portal_infolib_subory/janka_nemethyova/infos_2013/infos_2013_zbornik.pdf.
KRAVJAR Július, NOGE Juraj (2013). Strategies and responses to plagiarism in Slovakia. PLAGIRISM ACROSS EUROPE AND BEYOND - Conference Proceedings, pp. 201-215 [ONLINE] Available at: http://ippheae.pefka.mendelu.cz/files/proceedings.pdf.
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18.9.2013, Július KravjarNaspäť
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